Modern Greek For Classicists
~A Graded Reader For Beginners~
~Αναγνωστικό Αρχαρίων ~
THE PAIDEIA INSTITUTE FOR HUMANISTIC STUDY
NEW YORK CITY, 2020
26 dialogues already written, adding B-sides, cultural materials, etc.
Goal for 11/23: rest of documents into big document, add more dialogues between 2 and 3 and 4 and 5.
Total Number for Readers A1 & A2 : 32
A1 Level Dialogues & Lessons :
GRAMMAR VIDEOS 1 – 15 Done, Descriptions & notes
– NEED TO EDIT & SUBTITLE ALL Greek & English
– NEED TO SUBTITLE ALL Greek & English
****ΙΝ RED NOTES FOR DESIGN AND IMAGES NEEDED FROM i-stock:
*some exercises must be formed according to the IMAGES
Sources: curriculum built from Ellinika A’, Epikoinoniste Ellinika 1, Athens University Syllabus (Bella, Iakovou et alii), Greek Today, Modern Greek For Classicists -Spain Syllabus, 1994-, Klik Sta Ellinika.
All dialogues are graded and follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
THIS IS THE SOFTWARE for level placement:
PROLOGOS – PREFACE
All of Classicists have had some Modern Greek more or less. This is not an introductory book to the modern greek language, but more of a graded reader that will help you remember the greek you might have learned back in the day when you excavated near that seaside! Also, with the tables at the end of the book, we are aiming at the classicists who have a better knowledge of classical attic and their own grammar foundations, upon which we would like to built their modern greek language.
This Graded Reader, Modern Greek For Classicists is targeted towards people who have studied Classics, Ancient Greek and Latin, therefore Classicists, that want to refresh their modern greek, or start systematically learning the differences and the developments from Classic Attic Greek into Modern. The writer is both a classicist and a linguist, and believes that one system (the Modern Greek) derives from the development of the other. Of course, the whole project was deemed as utopian by linguistics professors in Greece. “You cannot teach at the same time within linguistic synchrony and diachrony” was the response when I proposed the idea to my Master’s Degree supervisor in Athens. I studied Teaching Modern Greek As a Foreign Language at the time. Yet, the interest of Classicists in Modern Greece still existed. As Johanna Hanink has described very deeply in her article “On Not Knowing Modern Greek” at the Eidolon Journal, Modern Greek is “a version of Greek in which you can, in fact, hear words, laugh on cue, and watch actors act.”
Classicists, though, do complain they have to learn too many languages but Hanink, fortunately, insisted against all odds of Linguistics Professors in Greece: “But it’s worth it. Learning Modern Greek, at least to the extent that I have managed to learn it, has made both my life and my relationship with my work all the richer. I haven’t even mentioned the unique pleasure that modern Greek literature offers the classicist. That sheer enjoyment aside, few people have been more influential in shaping modern views of Greek antiquity than George Seferis, or have problematized the periodization of Greek poetry more than Constantine Cavafy (translated into English most recently by critic and classicist Daniel Mendelsohn). I first came to Modern Greek after reading Seferis’ essay “Delphi” (Greek here), but since then have actually come to prefer paddling around in Greek literature’s less classical waters.” So, this book kept on being written.
The protective wing of the Paideia Institute helped make an attempt for the impossible. Of course, all mistakes are at the responsibility of the author, Ilias Kolokouris. Had it not been for the kind support of Jason Pedicone, who believed in the project and funded it from the beginning, this attempt would not have been made possible.
PROLOGOS – PREFACE
“They will never learn
mModern Greek, they only study ancient! Go have fun, but do not expect much!” was the response of my Master’s thesis supervisor when I mentioned I will be teaching modern Greek to classicists at Selianitika, during Paideia’s Living Greek in Greece program seven summers ago. My Masters was on Teaching Modern Greek as a Foreign Language, a betrayal for my Classics Ptychion. Then, when I proposed the idea of a book that describes both the development of the modern Greek language and its phonetic or linguistic relationship with Ancient Attic Greek – my other supervisor at the University of Athens, a linguist also, refused firmly : “Modern Greek and Ancient Greek are two separate systems! They cannot be described simultaneously. I cannot accept this as a thesis proposal. It is impossible!” Therefore, this book is aiming for the impossible.
“They will never learn Modern Greek, they only study ancient! Go have fun, but do not expect much!” was the response of my Master’s thesis supervisor when I mentioned I will be teaching modern greek to classicists at Selianitika, at Paideia’s Living Greek in Greece program seven summers ago. My Masters was on Teaching Modern Greek as a Foreign Language, a betrayal for my Classics Ptychion. Then, when the idea of a research article/ book that describes both the development of the modern Greek language and its phonetic or linguistic relationship with Ancient Attic Greek, along with the modern greek language – my other supervisor at the University of Athens, a linguist also, refused firmly : “Modern Greek and Ancient Greek are two separate systems! They cannot be described simultaneously. I cannot accept this as a Thesis Proposal. It is impossible !” Therefore, this book is aiming for the impossible. And aiming for the impossible is bound to make it imperfect. Any faults, mistakes or typos are of the author.
Virginia Woolf in 1925 described our ignorance of classical Greek, in her famous essay On Not Knowing Greek : “For it is vain and foolish to talk of knowing Greek, since in our ignorance we should be at the bottom of any class of schoolboys, since we do not know how the words sounded, or where precisely we ought to laugh, or how the actors acted, and between this foreign people and ourselves there is not only difference of race and tongue but a tremendous breach of tradition. All the more strange, then, is it that we should wish to know Greek, try to know Greek, feel for ever drawn back to Greek, and be for ever making up some notion of the meaning of Greek, though from what incongruous odds and ends, with what slight resemblance to the real meaning of Greek, who shall say?”
Jason Pedicone, obsessed with making classics and the Ancient languages and cultures accessible to the people, has always been interested in exercising his modern Greek. Jason, who has been a student of mine for the last seven years, never thought the idea for this book was unrealistic. He has, as long as I have known him, respected both the Ancient Greek texts and the Modern Greek Literature. He well knew about Cavafy, Elytis, Kazantzakis and Vamvakaris already from his spoken Plato days. Also, Dr. Pedicone has handed in to me the great argument that our lessons of Modern Greek have improved his Classical attic Greek. And, more or less, Jason has inspired this book with his progressive mindset.
But for this book, hope and inspiration also came from a current classicist, progressive, expert on classical literature and works but also immersed both in modern greek and the conceptual reception of Ancient Greece from the modern western world. Johanna Hanink, professor of Classics at Brown University, wrote the piece that pushed classics towards learning the modern greek language and its culture. A piece that for quite some time while published at the online journal Eidolon, inspired many classicists to learn modern greek, on line or in programmes that take place in Greece. There, Hanink wrote:
“So why does Modern Greek still not have a seat at the classicists’ table?
This is, bluntly put, largely because our discipline continues to take a colonialist view of, among other things, Greece, Greeks, and (Modern) Greek. Historians and anthropologists who work on Greece have been much more willing than classicists to acknowledge the country’s legacy of metaphorical colonization: not by the Ottomans, but by the early European antiquaries and travelers who planted their flags in the ruins of Greek antiquity.”
All of Classicists have had some Modern Greek more or less. This is not an introductory book to the modern Greek language, but more of a graded reader that will help the classicst remember the Greek you might have learned back in the day when you excavated near that seaside! Also, with the tables at the end of the book, we are aiming at the classicists who have a better knowledge of classical attic and their own grammar foundations, upon which we would like to build their modern Greek language skills.
This Graded Reader, Modern Greek For Classicists is targeted towards people who have studied Classics, Ancient Greek and Latin, Archaeology, in other words, Classicists, who want to refresh their modern Greek, or start systematically learning the differences and the developments from Classic Attic Greek into Modern.
The writer is both a classicist and a linguist, and believes that one system (the Modern Greek) derives from a development of the other. That is, with the ups and downs of Atticism, the lingua franca of Koine and biblical greek, the the pushbacks of Katharevousa, the revolts for it or against it, the riots for translating the Oresteia or the Gospels, the foundation of Demotike, still, classic Attic Greek is related to modern Greek. Some myth and the language somehow lives on; this is, to make clear that the conversation here is strictly about the language. Not about race or ancient Greek DNA or other nationalistic ideologies that have nothing to do with language.
Jason Pedicone, who has been a student of mine for the last seven years, never thought the idea for this book was unrealistic. With a mission to make classics and ancient languages accessible to all people, he saw how a study of modern Greek, with special attention to its evolution and development over the course of centuries, could bring greater interest and engagement with both the Ancient Greek texts and Modern Greek Literature.
But for this book, hope and inspiration also came from a current classicist, an expert on classical literature with a progressive vision for exploring the dialogue of modern Greek and the reception of Ancient Greece in the modern world. Johanna Hanink, professor of Classics at Brown University, wrote the piece that pushed classicists towards learning more of modern Greek language and culture. Her piece, published in the online journal Eidolon, encouraged many classicists to learn modern Greek, whether online or in programs that take place in Greece. Hanink wrote:
“So why does Modern Greek still not have a seat at the classicists’ table? This is, bluntly put, largely because our discipline continues to take a colonialist view of, among other things, Greece, Greeks, and (Modern) Greek. Historians and anthropologists who work on Greece have been much more willing than classicists to acknowledge the country’s legacy of metaphorical colonization: not by the Ottomans, but by the early European antiquaries and travelers who planted their flags in the ruins of Greek antiquity.”
Therefore, we find it incumbent upon the modern classicist to recognize the legacy and consequences of studying the classics, to give Modern Greek a seat at the table and a voice in the dialogue.
We have structured this book as a graded reader, with fictional narratives in Modern Greek, followed by comprehension and discussion questions to explore the story and improve your understanding. Each dialogue has a limited set of vocabulary, and the grammar moves from simple to complex. For aural practice, animated videos accompany and expand upon the story.
The story itself is based on the myths of the ancient Greek hero, Hercules, with room for some liberal interpretations and comparisons with the realities in modern Greece. In the past decade, Greek society has gone through a period of rapid change and political circumstances. The huge Refugee wave, part of the European Migrant Crisis started in 2015 and is still going on with consequences for Greek society. While our story does not address these issues directly, it does inform the lens with which we view the past. Our main character, Hercules, comes from two different worlds, that of mortals and that of the gods. Tormented by Hera, he
iscould be called a refugee in the land of mortals. Is he welcomed or forever viewed as an outsider? Does he struggle with finding a place in the world? How can he combine the two cultures that influence his identity?
As a book that draws connections between the ancient language and the modern, we are also interested in the future evolutions of Modern Greek. For example, some linguists propose the use of the personal pronoun οσεσόσοι or the noun φιλεσφίλοι that contain both genders equally. We find this suggestion attractive and look forward to when such developments are canonized in a Lexicon of the vernacular.
We need to explain a few things, lastly, about the method this graded reader follows. An amalgam it is. There are repetitions, and this complies with the motto Repetitio est mater studiorum, which might be neither latin or greek originally, but has been an influence on the sole responsible of its application in this book and teacher of Modern Greek. The Rassias method, as well as two particular aspects of Stephen Krashen’s theory have had their impact. First, the Affective Filter Hypothesis. With this, the great educational researcher and linguist, argued that learners with high motivation, a good self-image self-confidence, and a low level of anxiety along with extroversion are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. And how did we attempt to apply this on this Graded Reader ? With the use of provocative questions, both for conversation and throughout the dialogues themselves. Provocative dialogues can sometimes lead to humour and funnier moments throughout the reader. We hope that those who read the book will enjoy the moments and understand we are using humour. Our idea is that by making the student and classicist laugh, the anxiety level will lower and the input will become more comprehensible. The student, hopefully, will become a risk taker and feel safe within the classroom to make mistakes, without judgement and constant corrections. The lesson shall become a playful, fun activity and the student will gradually improve their lingustic output.
Which leads us to the second aspect of Krashen’s influence on this book, which is the Comprehensible Input Hypothesis : We acquire, in other words, only when we understand language that contains structure that is “a little beyond” where we are now. How is this possible? How can we understand language that contains structures that we have not yet acquired? The answer to this apparent paradox is that we use more than our linguistic competence to help us understand. We also use context, our knowledge of the world, our extra-linguistic information to help us understand language directed at us.
This graded reader attempts to contextualize the +1 language structures that are given within every lesson, despite the paradox, as Krashen well describes it. Of course, the second part of this book, with the Grammar & Syntax exercises that will be coming together with small brief lesson-videos that will explain the phenomena, shall make this reader a better tool for those who want to review their greek, to get back to their modern greek phrases.
Last but not least, and please correct us if we are wrong, this is the first book for learners of modern greek that uses the common word μαλάκα. Quite high as a word in many frequency lists, the M-word has been avoided for decades, even though everyone uses it. In a paper from 2015, The M-word – A Greek collocation between solidarity and insult linguists Nikos Vergis and Marina Terkourafi argued that the mock impoliteness of the word has developed. The Greek collocation re malaka, which could formerly be construed as either solidary (dude) or insulting (asshole) has witnessed the solidary sense prevail across the board, in contrast to the insulting sense, about which consensus was much lower”
So, we tried to use μαλάκα finally in a book for classicst learners of Modern Greek. Not in an insulting, but a rather friendly way. Hercules, is called μαλάκα, by a God. If this is a mistake, the only one to blame is the writer of this reader. There are no dirty words, only dirty minds? Who knows? We shall cover Katharevousa in a later volume of this series of Graded Readers.
Bozaitika, Patra, Achaia, Greece
Thematically, the Graded Reader comes from a rather liberated use of ancient greek mythology. Especially, some labours of Hercules, along with a comparison with modern greek reality. Of course, Modern Greece is going through changes, and its population is currently (and as always has been through the centuries) being mixed with Refugees. The huge Refugee wave, part of the European Migrant Crisis that started in 2015 and is still going on, is not mentioned in this Graded Reader. That is, because as classicists or philologists or teachers, call us what you may, we do not have the ability to address political issues, suggest solutions and solve the crisis. This is why this Graded Reader belongs to the genre of Fiction and Mythology. Subtly, we do mention that Hercules is also of mixed race, a mortal and a god, a DemiGod. This is all we can do, concerning this aspect of the current political situation in Greece. A whole conversation should start, but cannot start with this Graded Reader. Therefore, bare with us. It will definitely not be perfect. Also, minorities will not be profoundly mentioned here. There is a Queer Eros character, and Hercules will dress up as Diianeira in the second volume of this Graded Reader, but all of these issues, unfortunately, important as they are, cannot be addressed in a Graded Reader that has to be published and written from a Native Greek speaker that teaches modern Greek to Americans. Greek scholars and Sociolinguists will find solutions for these issues within the modern greek Academia. These solutions will be suggested to the public (for example, some linguists propose the use of the personal pronoun οσεσόσοι or the noun φιλεσφίλοι that contain both genders equally. We find this suggestion attractive, but until it is canonized in a Lexicon of the vernacular, we could not use it in this Reader) adopted and then introduced to a book like this. Therefore, bear with us. The goals of this Reader is to introduce something comprehensible (A1 level, according to The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment) and fun to read for an average educated Classicist that has some interest in Modern Greece and its culture.
ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΜΗΔΕΝ 0:
ΠΡΟΦΟΡΑ – ΑΛΦΑΒΗΤΟ –
ΑΣΚΗΣΕΙΣ ΔΙΑΦΟΡΑΣ ΠΡΟΦΟΡΑΣ ΑΡΧΑΙΑΣ κ ΝΕΑΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗΣ
BRIEF LESSON ON THE ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION TIPS
FROM Modern Greek For Classicists Course Handout &
Need to fix the english here:
ΤΟ ΝΕΟ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟ ΑΛΦΑΒΗΤΟ
The modern greek Alphabet is similar to the ancient Greek Alphabet in terms of graphemes. Differences in pronunciation occur though, according to certain research, ever since the heyday of ancient Thebes. This pronunciation you have already learned, a more “phonetic” so to say, we will simplify during this course. In ancient Greek there is a correspondence of 1:1 between what you read and what you pronounce. In Modern Greek this is not the case.
Certain phenomena that one learns when introduced to Ancient Greek simply do not occur in modern.
Aspiration Distiction (the h sound)
In ancient Greek when one reads Ἑρμῆς the pronunciation is /hermees/
hence the writing in English Hermes.
The /h/ sound is lost in modern Greek. Therefore, one will write Ερμής and do not pronounce the aspiration. Modern Greek does not have aspirated consonants.
Aspirated consonants were also simplified toward their counterpart:
|Σύμφωνα||Αρχαία Ελληνικά||Νέα Ελληνικά||Παράδειγμα|
|Θ, θ||tʰ||/θ/ as in the English word theatre (fricative)||θέατρο, θέμα, θεός|
|Φ, φ||pʰ||phi /f/ or /fh/ voiced fricative but sometimes more bilabial rather than labiodental||φέρω, φάρος, φόνος|
|Χ,χ||kʰ||chi /χ/ fricative as in the German ich||χάος, χέρι, χόρτο|
ΑΣΚΗΣΗ 1: Διάβασε δυνατά στα αρχαία και στα νέα ελληνικά:
θάλαμος / θάλασσα / θέλω / θάρρος / θάνατος / θεός/ θέμα
φάκελος / φάλαγγα / φαλακρός / φλαμένκο / φανός / φαντασία / φάρμακο
χαλαρός / χαλεπός / χαλινός / χάος / χέρι / Χάρηκα! / χιόνι
The voiced consonants of ancient Greek lose their voice in modern. Sounds move from the strong use of the lips towards a more “rolling” sound. Therefore:
|Σύμφωνα||Αρχαία Ελληνικά||Νέα Ελληνικά||Παράδειγμα|
|Β, β||/b/||/v/ as in very, similar to Spanish fricative b but sometimes more bilabial||βάρος, βάθος, βάλλω|
|Δ, δ||/d/||/δ/ = /ð/ as in there, somewhat similar to Spanish fricative d||δεν, δάσος, δίκη|
|Γ, γ||/ɡ/||/γ/ as the sound in year or way, similar to Spanish fricative g||γάτα, γη, γέρος|
However, the same sounds do continue to exist in modern Greek. They survive in the digraphs described here, mainly common among words of venetian or turkish etymology, or ancient words where the consonant changed, like αγκάθι < ἀκάνθιον.
|Δίγραφα||Προφορά Νέα Ελληνικά||Παράδειγμα|
|ντ||/d/||ντάμα, έντιμος, ντοκιμαντέρ|
|γκ||/ɡ/||γκαζόν, γκαρσόνι, αγκάθι|
ΑΣΚΗΣΗ 2: Διάβασε δυνατά στα αρχαία και στα νέα ελληνικά:
βάλλω / βάρος / βέλτιον / βράση / βέρα / βάφω/ βαθμός
δένω / Διδώ / δάσος / δίσκος / δόγμα/ δέρας / δίμετρος
γάμος / γάλα / γέρος / γάτος / γέλιο
The double consonants of ancient greek survive in modern greek. They are pronounced as double, but following the loss of aspiration, lose their quantity accordingly. Therefore:
|Διπλά||Αρχαία Ελληνικά||Νέα Ελληνικά||Παράδειγμα|
|ξ||/kʰs/||/ks/||ξένος, φιλοξενία, ξανά, ξύλο|
|ψ||/pʰs /||/ps/||ψάρι, ψέμα, ψωμί|
|ζ||/zd/||/z/||ζάχαρη, ζενίθ, ζωή|
ΑΣΚΗΣΗ 3: Διάβασε δυνατά στα αρχαία και στα νέα ελληνικά:
ξέρω, ξανά, ξερός, ξίδι, ξύνω, ξενοδοχείο
ψάχνω, ψάλλω, άψογος, ψητό-
ζώο, ζόρι, ζυγός, ζωμός
Voiceless Consonants and other consonants that remain the same
Voiceless Consonants of ancient Greek remain voiceless in modern. So do the nasal ones and the liquid consonants. Therefore:
|Άφωνα||Αρχαία Ελληνικά||Νέα Ελληνικά||Παράδειγμα|
|π||/p/||/p/||πόρτα, πάλι, πόλος|
|τ||/t /||/t/||τάση, τέμνω, τέλος|
|κ||/k /||/k/||κάλλος, κρέας, κήτος|
|λ||/l/||/l/||λαός, λαβύρινθος, λέξη|
|μ||/m/||/m/||μόνος, μάτι, μέλλον|
|ν||/n/||/n/||νίκη, νέος, ναός|
|ρ||/r/||/r/||ράκος, ροή, ράδιο|
|Σ, σ, ς||/s/||/s/||σάκος, σαλάμι, σαν|
Length Distinction was a prime characteristic of the ancient greek language. It gave all the possibilities in meter and poetry. However, there is no length quantity in modern greek. There are no long and short vowels. Ω-μέγα and O-μικρόν sound the same: /o/.
Ε-ψιλον does not sound pitched, but like a plain /e/.
Ήττα, Ιώτα, Ύ-ψιλον along with some diphthongs sound all like /i/. Therefore, the diphthongs are only two phthongs in terms of graphemes and not phonemes.
The phenomenon that changed their sound is called Iotacism and it means the process of vowels tending to sound like a plain iota.
|Φωνήεντα||Αρχαία Ελληνικά||Νέα Ελληνικά||Παράδειγμα|
|α||/a/||/a/||άλλος, άρμα, άτη|
|ε||/e/ or /ee/||/e/||Ελλάδα, ένα, έπος|
|η||/ee/||/i/||ήλιος, ήττα, ζωή|
|ι||/i/||/i/||ίσος, ιατρός, ιδέα|
|ο||/o/||/o/||όταν, όλον, οδός|
|υ||/u/||/i/||ύβρη, υγρό, υδρία|
|ω||/ɔː/||/o/||ωδή, ωκεανός, ώρα|
So to sum up, all the following letters and pairs of letters are pronounced /i/.
ι, η, υ, ει, οι, ηι, υι : /i/
|Δίφθογγος||Αρχαία Ελληνικά||Νέα Ελληνικά||Παράδειγμα|
|αι||/ai/ as in aisle||/e/ as in met||παίζω, παιδί, αίγα|
|ει||/ei/ as in eight||/i/ as in see||εικόνα, είδηση, είδος|
|οι||/oi/ as in oil||/i/ as in see||οίκος, Οιδίπους, οικονομία|
|αυ||/au/ as in sauerkraut||/f/ as in soft (before voiceless consonants)/v/ as in suave (before voiced consonants and vowels)||αυτός, αυτί, αυτάρκηςαυλή, δαυλός, παύω Παύλος|
|ευ||/eu/ as in feud||/f/ as in chef (before voiceless consonants)/v/ as in eleven (before voiced consonants and vowels)||ευχαριστώ, ευτυχία, ευθύςευάρεστος, ευήλιος, ευλογία|
|ου||/oou/ as in group||/u/ as in book||πού, Ουρουγουάη , ούτε|
|ᾳ||/aa/ saw / saw+(w)it||/a/ as in father||άλλος, αυτός, άκρη|
|ῃ||/ee/ as in say / say+(y)it||/i/ as in see||ήλιος, ήττα, ζωή|
|ῳ||/ow/ as in sow/||(omitted)|
|ᾱυ||/au/ as in saw+you||(omitted)|
|ηυ||/eeu/ as in say+you||(omitted)|
|ωυ||/oou/ as in sow+you||(omitted)|
|υι||/uee/ as in suite||/i/ as in see||υιός, υιοθετώ|
Η ΑΠΩΛΕΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΔΟΤΙΚΗΣ
The loss of the Dative Case
Η νέα ελληνική έχει μόνο τρεις πτώσεις. Ονομαστική, Γενική και Αιτιατική.
|Ονομαστική||ο άνδρας||ὁ ἀνήρ||οι άνδρες||οἱ ἄνδρες|
|Γενική||του άνδρα||τοῦ ἀνδρός||των ανδρών||τῶν ἀνδρῶν|
|Δοτική||—————||τῷ ἀνδρί||—————||τοῖς ἀνδράσι|
|Αιτιατική||τον άνδρα||τόν ἄνδρα||τους άνδρες||τούς ἄνδρας|
|Κλητική||—————||(ὦ) ἄνερ||—————||(ὦ) ἄνδρες|
The morphological root of all cases in modern greek seems to be the ancient accusative. The vocative is replaced again by the accusative, and so is the Dative. In these notes we will explain how it is replaced syntactically.
Η Δοτική πτώση στα νέα ελληνικά υποχωρεί. Στην θέση της δοτικής βλέπουμε την αιτιατική, συνοδευόμενη από προθέσεις. Τα παραδείγματα:
The dative case in modern greek subsides. In place of the dative we see the accusative, accompanied with prepositions. Examples:
Instrumental Dative > με + accusative
Locative and indirect Object> στο(ν), στη(ν), στο, στους, στις, στα
Τί δήποτ’ ἂν εἴη ταῦτα, ὦ Εὐθύφρων, δίδομεν τὰ παρ’ ἡμῶν δῶρα τοῖς θεοῖς;
δίδωμι + dative τοῖς θεοῖς ———-> δίνω + σε + accusative:
δίνω σε + τους θεούς -> δίνω στους θεούς
Certain verbs or words that derive from verbs are followed by the dative case. In modern greek, the case accordingly becomes the accusative. Therefore:
1. Verbs of friendly or hostile action,
ἀρέσκω, εὐνοῶ, βοηθῶ, τιμωρῶ, ἀπειλῶ, πολεμῶ, μάχομαι, ἐναντιοῦμαι, μέμφομαι, ὀργίζομαι, φθονῶ:
Οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι τῷ Ἀντιόχῳ ἐβοήθουν.
βοηθῶ + dative τῷ Ἀντιόχῳ ——–> βοηθώ + accusative
Οι Αθηναίοι βοηθούσαν τον Αντίοχο.
Πολεμοῦσι τοῖς Πέρσαις.
πολεμῶ + dative τοῖς Πέρσαις.—–> πολεμώ + accusative
Πολεμούν τους Πέρσες.
2. Verbs that show docility and obedience, along with their opposites in ancient greek were followed by the dative. In modern, the case is the accusative, preceded by a preposition.
πείθομαι, πιστεύω, ὑπακούω, ὑπηρετῶ, ἀπιστῶ:
Ῥᾳδίως πείθεται τῷ πατρί.
πείθομαι + dative τῷ πατρί. ——-> πείθομαι + σε + accusative
Εύκολα υπακούει στον πατέρα.
The verb χρῶμαι was followed by two datives.
Χρῶμαι τῷ προδότῃ συμβούλῳ.
χρῶμαι + dative + dative ————> χρησιμοποιώ + accusative + ως + accusative
Χρησιμοποιώ τον προδότη ως σύμβουλο.
3. Verbs that show resemblance, equality, accordance and agreement in Attci Greek were followed by dative. In modern the dative becomes accusative, preceded by a preposition.
ἰσοῦμαι, ἔοικα ὁμοιάζω, συμφωνῶ, συνᾴδω, ὁμολογῶ, ὁμονοῶ:
Τὸ τῆς πόλεως ἦθος ὁμοιοῦται τοῖς ἄρχουσι.
Ὁμοιοῦμαι + dative τοῖς ἄρχουσι —–> μοιάζω + με + accusative Το ήθος της πόλης μοιάζει με τους άρχοντες.
Τὰ γὰρ ἔργα οὐ συμφωνεῖ τοῖς λόγοις.
Συμφωνῶ + dative τοῖς λόγοις.——> συμφωνώ + με + accusative
Τα έργα δεν συμφωνούν με τους λόγους.
4. Verbs that indicate dispute or reconciliation were also followed by the dative-The dative again replaced by the accusative, preceded by a preposition. ἀμφισβητῶ, ἐρίζω, διαλλάττομαι.
Οἱ ἐχθροὶ ἐρίζουσιν ἀλλήλοις.
Ἐρίζω + dative ἀλλήλοις——–> ερίζω + με + accusative of both pronouns. Οι εχθροί ερίζουν ο ένας με τον άλλο.
Οἱ δὲ ἐπιτίθενται τῷ στρατεύματι.
Ἐπιτίθεμαι + dative τῷ στρατεύματι —–> επιτίθεμαι + σε + accusative
Αυτοί επιτίθενται στο στράτευμα.
Τῇ βασιλείᾳ ἁρμόττει καλοκαγαθία.
Ἁρμόττει + dative τῇ βασιλείᾳ ——-> αρμόζω + σε + accusative Στην βασιλεία αρμόζει η καλοκαγαθία.
Δηλαδή, στα νέα ελληνικά οι παραπάνω κατηγορίες ρημάτων συντάσσονται με αιτιατική ή εμπρόθετο προσδιορισμό σε θέση αντικειμένου και σπάνια με γενική:
Πολεμά τους εχθρούς.
Μοιάζει του παππού του. [ή: στον παππού του]
FOSSILIZED LEXICAL UNITS FROM ANCIENT GREEK
INTO MODERN GREEK
Εντάξει, εν μέρει, δόξα τω Θεώ, πράγματι, τω όντι, εν τω μεταξύ, ενώ
Αιέν αριστεύειν: Πάντα να αριστεύετε (Ομήρου Ιλ. Ζ 208)
Αμ’ έπος αμ’ έργον: Μαζί με τα λόγια και τα έργα (Ηρόδοτος)
Λάθε βιώσας: Να ζεις στην αφάνεια, να μην επιδώκεις την προβολή (Επίκουρος)
Η ΑΠΩΛΕΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΠΑΡΕΜΦΑΤΟΥ
The loss of the Infinitive
Ἐθέλω εἰπεῖν→ Θέλω να πω
Η νέα ελληνική δεν έχει ακριβώς απαρέμφατο. Στην θέση του απαρεμφάτου έχουμε την “υποτακτική”. In the place of the infinitve we have a pseudo-subjunctive. Linguists still argue whether it should be named the Subjunctive or the Infinitive.
In Ancient Greek the infinitive had four tenses (present, future, aorist, perfect) and three voices (active, middle, passive). Unique forms for the middle were found only in the future and aorist; in the present and perfect, middle and passive were the same.
Thematic verbs form presented active infinitives by adding to the stem the theme vowel -ε- and the infinitive ending -εν, and contract to form an -ειν (from εεν) ending, e.g. παιδεύειν. Athematic verbs add the sole suffix -ναι instead, e.g. διδόναι. In the middle voice, the present middle infinitive ending is -σθαι, e.g. δίδοσθαι and thematic verbs add an additional -ε- between the ending and the stem, e.g. παιδεύεσθαι.
|ACTIVE VOICE||MIDDLE – PASSIVE VOICE|
|Ενεστώτας||λύειν||να λύνω||λύεσθαι||να λύνομαι|
|Παρατατικός||—————||—-(να έλυνα)||—————||—-(να λυνόμουν)|
|Μέλλοντας||λύσειν||να λύσω||λύσεσθαι / λυθήσεσθαι||να λυθώ|
|Αόριστος||λῦσαι||να λύσω||λύσασθαι / λυθῆναι||να λυθώ|
|Παρακείμενος||λελυκέναι||να έχω λύσει||λελύσθαι||να έχω λυθεί|
|Υπερσυντέλικος||—————||να είχα λύσει||—————||να είχα λυθεί|
In modern Greek, the infinitive ceased to be in use. It was replaced syntactically by the subjunctive. The characteristic -σ- that existed in the ancient greek still indicates the nature, the aspect of the action (ποιόν ενεργείας). Therefore, an action that is continuous, progressive, habitual, repeated and imperfective will keep the stem of the Present Tense. An action that is limited, momentary, single and perfective will use the -σ- or the according stem of the Aorist Tense.
Infinitives in Modern Greek are inflected for person. This means that depending on the actor the “infinitive” or better called the subjunctive changes accordingly.
Therefore for the Active Voice we have:
|For a continuous action||For a limited action|
|Θέλω να γράφω||Θέλω να γράψω|
|Θέλω να γράφεις||Θέλω να γράψεις|
|Θέλω να γράφει||Θέλω να γράψει|
|Θέλω να γράφουμε||Θέλω να γράψουμε|
|Θέλω να γράφετε||Θέλω να γράψετε|
|Θέλω να γράφουν||Θέλω να γράψουν|
As we see, depending on the nature, the aspect of the action, the stem is either the stem of the Present Tense or the stem of the Aorist ( *έγραφ+σα –> έγραψα –> να γράψω) . What we must be careful though, is that the second stem does not mean it is an action that is finished and belongs to the past. It is an action that will finish eventually at some point. Whereas να γράφω talks about an action of which we don’t know when it will end. In English that would be more like “I want to be writing” in antithesis with “I want to write”.
The “infinitives” can take nominative or accusative subjects. They take nominative subjects when the infinitive is specified for tense (that is, the present and past form of the infinitive can alternate and the infinitive fully supports a sequence of tense). They take accusative subjects when the infinitive is not specified for tense (that is, when the only form which is admitted is the present infinitive).
Only the Ancient Greek aorist infinitives active and passive survive in Modern Greek, but their descendants have a totally different function. The Ancient Greek γράψαι “to write” followed this path:
γράψαι → γράψειν (in analogy to the present infinitive γράφειν) → γράψει
used only in combination with the auxiliary verb έχω “I have”
→ Present Perfect: έχω γράψει “I have written”.
→ Past Perfect: είχα γράψει “I had written”.
Similarly, the Ancient Greek γραφῆναι “to be written” survives as γραφεί; thus, έχει γραφεί means “It has been written”.
In Modern Greek, “I want to write”
θέλω να γράψω (“I want that I write”),
opposed to Ancient Greek
ἐθέλω γράφειν (“I want to write”).
In Modern Greek, the infinitive has changed form and is used mainly in the formation of tenses and not with an article or alone. Instead of the Ancient Greek infinitive “γράφειν”, Modern Greek uses the infinitive “γράψει”, which does not inflect. The Modern Greek infinitive has only two forms according to voice, “γράψει” for the active voice and “γραφ(τ)εί” for the passive voice.
ΑΣΚΗΣΗ 1 :
Fill in the gaps with Simple Subjunctive. Some verbs are irregular in form, in other cases you need to use simple tenses (Future etc) so don’t worry about mistakes!
- Εγώ πρέπει _______ το μάθημά μου. (ετοιμάζω)
- Εμείς πρέπει ________το χορτάρι. (κόβω)
- Λέμε ________ μια βόλτα. (πάω)
- Ο Νίκος ίσως _______μία ταινία πριν κοιμηθεί απόψε. (βλέπω)
- Η Ελένη μάλλον______ ένα φόρεμα αύριο. (αγοράζω)
- Εσείς πρέπει____________σε όλες τις ερωτήσεις μου. (απαντώ)
- Ο Ανδρέας θέλει _______ το δωμάτιο. (βάφω)
- Η Νίκη δεν θέλει _________ αργά στο σπίτι της απόψε. (γυρίζω)
- Λέω ________ μέχρι αργά σήμερα το βράδυ. (γυρίζω)
- Η θεία μου πρέπει ________ το σπίτι της αύριο, αν και δεν θέλει. (καθαρίζω)
- Εμείς μπορεί ________ στην πισίνα του ξενοδοχείου. (κολυμπώ)
- Σκέφτομαι ___________ κοκκινιστό σήμερα. (μαγειρεύω)
- Εσείς θα είναι ευχάριστο _________ καλά Ελληνικά. (μαθαίνω)
- Μπορείτε ________ στο σπίτι μας, αν θέλετε. (μένω)
- Ο Αλέξανδρος σκέφτεται ________ το αυτοκίνητό του για το ταξίδι του από την Αθήνα προς το Άγιον Όρος. (παίρνω)
- Είναι πιο εύκολο για εμάς _________ με το τραίνο. (ταξιδεύω)
- Πρέπει ________ ως το σταθμό του μετρό Ακρόπολη, και βαριέμαι. (περπατώ)
- Σε συμβουλεύω __________ να εργάζεσαι μεθοδικά. (συνεχίζω)
- Φρόντισε ___________το διάβασμά σου πριν τις 12 μ.μ. (τελειώνω)
- Η Αλίκη μπορεί ___________ το φόρεμα που αγόρασε μέχρι αύριο. (αλλάζω)
Ποιο είναι σωστό; Γιατί;
1.Η ανηψιά μου μαθαίνει ελληνικά. Λέει:
Α. Μαθαίνω να γράφω.
Β. Μαθαίνω να γράψω.
- Βλέπω ένα ντοκυμαντέρ για την μεσογειακή διατροφή. Μιλάνε για το πόσο καλό κάνει το κρασί. Λένε:
Α. Είναι ωφέλιμο να πίνει κανείς κρασί.
Β. Είναι ωφέλιμο να πιει κανείς κρασί.
3. Στο πάρτυ γενεθλίων της θείας μου δεν μπορώ να πάω, γιατί έχω δουλειά. Τι λέω;
Α. Δεν μπορώ απόψε. Πρέπει να δουλεύω μέχρι αργά.
Β. Δεν μπορώ απόψε. Πρέπει να δουλέψω μέχρι αργά.
- Ο παππούς μου θέλει να χάσει λίγα κιλά. Τι λέει;
Α. Δεν πρέπει να τρώω λιπαρά.
Β. Δεν πρέπει να φάω λιπαρά.
5. Γράφω ένα γράμμα στα ξαδέρφια μου στην Ελλάδα. Για το επόμενο καλοκαίρι, εύχομαι:
Α. Θέλω πολύ να σας βλέπω το καλοκαίρι.
Β. Θέλω πολύ να σας δω το καλοκαίρι.
6. Είμαι στην παραλία, κοντά στη θάλασσα. Μετά από πολλές ώρες μουσικής και διαβάσματος, θέλω θάλασσα και κολύμπι. Τι λέω στο φίλο μου;
Α. Πάμε να κολυμπάμε;
Β. Πάμε να κολυμπήσουμε;
7. Είμαι στην Ελλάδα. Θέλω βόλτα και ουζάκια στις ταβέρνες κάθε βράδυ, αλλά οι Έλληνες φίλοι μου δεν έχουν λεφτά. Τι μου λένε;
Α. Δεν μπορούμε να βγαίνουμε κάθε βράδυ.
Β. Δεν μπορούμε να βγούμε κάθε βράδυ.
8. Προτείνω στο φίλο μου ένα παιχνίδι τάβλι μαζί μου. Τι του λέω;
Α. Θέλεις να παίζουμε τάβλι;
Β. Θέλεις να παίξουμε τάβλι;
9. Οι Έλληνες φίλοι μου με κάλεσαν για φαγητό. Εγώ δεν μπορώ, η γάτα μου είναι άρρωστη και θέλει γιατρό. Τι λέω; :
Α. Δεν μπορώ. Έχω να πηγαίνω τη γάτα μου στο γιατρό.
Β. Δεν μπορώ. Έχω να πάω τη γάτα μου στο γιατρό.
10. Ένας φίλος μου θέλει να ξέρει τι μου αρέσει, το ταξίδι με το πλοίο ή με το τρένο. Εγώ απαντώ:
Α. Προτιμώ να ταξιδεύω με πλοίο.
Β. Προτιμώ να ταξιδέψω με πλοίο.
ΑΡΘΡΑ – ARTICLES
ANCIENT GREEK MODERN GREEK
αἱ θάλασσαι οι θάλασσες
Ἡ νύξ → ACC. τήν νύκτα → NOM. η νύχτα
- As mentioned above, the most predominant case in Modern Greek is the accusative.
Not only in terms of syntax, but also in terms of inflection. Here we see how the ancient accusative formed the modern greek Nominative Case. Similarly:
Ἡ Ἑλλὰς → ACC. τήν Ἑλλάδα → ΝΟΜ. Η Ελλάδα
Ἡ πόλις → ACC. τήν πόλιν → ΝΟΜ. Η πόλη
*Difficult 3rd declension nouns become neuter deminiatives and drop the suffix -ιον:
Ὁ παῖς → ACC. τὸν παῖδα
Τὸ παιδίον → ΝΟΜ. Το παιδί
Ἡ κλείς → ACC. τήν κλεῖδα → ΝΟΜ. Η πόλη
Τὸ κλειδίον → ΝΟΜ. Το κλειδί
*ΜΕΣΗ ΦΩΝΗ : MIDDLE VOICE
Morphologically Middle Voice is not distinct from the Passive Voice
Μιλώ – μιλιέμαι
Κοιτώ – κοιτιέμαι
*ΕΥΚΤΙΚΗ ΦΩΝΗ: OPTATIVE MOOD
We have no Optative Mood in Modern Greek. It is replaced by Υποτακτική Subjunctive,
Or other structures in more complex cases:
Εἴθε φίλος ἡμῖν γένοιο → Μακάρι να γίνεις φίλος μας.
Σὺ κομίζοις ἂν σεαυτὸν ᾗ θέλεις. → Αν το ξεχάσω, μου το θυμίζεις. [οριστ. ενεστώτα]
*VERBS ENDING in -μι
Develop differently in the active voice, into simple -ω verbs, but do keep their Passive Voice in modern greek
ANCIENT MODERN GREEK ANCIENT PASSIVE
Δείκνυμι → δείχνω αλλά : δείχνομαι (δείκνυμαι)
Δίδωμι → δίδω/ δίνω αλλά : δίνομαι (δίδομαι)
Τίθημι → θέτω αλλά: τίθεμαι (τίθεμαι)
Θέλω ἵνα + Subjunctive → θα + Subjunctive : θα φύγω / θα μάθω
In Modern Greek, as mentioned above, Aspect replaces Tense. Therefore, we indicate differnently, according to the frequency of the action mentioned by the verb:
Πάω – πηγαίνω
Θέλω να πάω στην Ελλάδα
(Here the aspect is for an action that will happen ONCE)
Θέλω να πηγαίνω στην Ελλάδα κάθε καλοκαίρι.
(Here the aspect is for an action that will be happening MANY TIMES)
Γράψω – γράφω
Ο Νίκος θέλει να γράψει καλά σήμερα.
(Here the aspect is for an action that will happen ONCE)
Ο Νίκος θέλει να γράφει συχνά γράμματα στην οικογένειά του.
(Here the aspect is for an action that will be happening MANY TIMES)
The -s- stem or γρά-ψ-ω from the Aorist, describes an action that has a specific beginning and an ending. The -φ- stem or γρά-φ-ω from the Present Tense, describes an action we do not know when it will end, might continue in the future or repeat.